Title:

Kind
Code:

A1

Abstract:

A method of generating in-quadrature signals is disclosed. The method comprises phase shifting a Doppler frequency-shifted signal; phase shifting a local oscillator signal; mixing the phase shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the phase-shifted local oscillator signal generating thereby a signal which includes the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a further phase-shifted local oscillator signal; and mixing the unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal generating thereby a signal which includes the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal and a further phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal. A method of determining the velocity of an object is also disclosed. The method comprises receiving a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected of backscattered from the object; generating a local oscillator signal; based upon the received Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the local oscillator signal, generating an in-phase signal; based upon the received Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the local oscillator signal generating an in-quadrature signal; summing the in-phase signal and the in-quadrature signal; and transforming the summation of the in-phase signal and the in-quadrature signal. A lidar is disclosed comprising an optical system for transmitting an output signal to an object and receiving thereby a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected or backscattered from the object; a signal mixing assembly receptive of the Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signal; and a signal transformer for transforming the in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signals. A signal mixing system is disclosed comprising an array of signal couplers receptive of a Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal which includes the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal and a phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and an in-quadrature signal which includes the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a further phase-shifted local oscillator signal; and a plurality of signal detectors receptive of the in-phase and in-quadrature signals.

Inventors:

Rogers, Philip L. (Manassas, VA, US)

Application Number:

11/882280

Publication Date:

01/31/2008

Filing Date:

07/31/2007

Export Citation:

Primary Class:

Other Classes:

356/28.5

International Classes:

View Patent Images:

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Primary Examiner:

ALSOMIRI, ISAM A

Attorney, Agent or Firm:

STERNE, KESSLER, GOLDSTEIN & FOX P.L.L.C. (WASHINGTON, DC, US)

Claims:

What is claimed is:

1. A method of generating in-quadrature signals, the method comprising: phase shifting a Doppler frequency shifted signal; phase shifting a local oscillator signal; mixing the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the phase-shifted local oscillator signal generating thereby a signal which includes the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a further phase-shifted local oscillator signal; and mixing the unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal generating thereby a signal which includes the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal and a further phase-shifted Doppler frequency shifted signal.

2. A method of determining the velocity of an object, the method comprising: receiving a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected of backscattered from the object; generating a local oscillator signal; based upon the received Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the local oscillator signal, generating an in-phase signal; based upon the received Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the local oscillator signal generating an in-quadrature signal; summing the in-phase signal and the in-quadrature signal; and transforming the summation of the in-phase signal and the in-quadrature signal.

3. A lidar comprising: an optical system for transmitting an output signal to an object and receiving thereby a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected or backscattered from the object; a signal mixing assembly receptive of the Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signal; and a signal transformer for transforming the in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signals.

4. A signal mixing system comprising: an array of signal couplers receptive of a Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal which includes the unphase shifted local oscillator signal and a phase shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and an in-quadrature signal which includes the phase shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a further phase shifted local oscillator signal; and a plurality of signal detectors receptive of the in-phase and in-quadrature signals.

5. A coherent optical system comprising: an optical system for transmitting an output signal to an object and receiving thereby a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected or backscattered from the object; a signal mixing assembly receptive of the Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signal; and a signal transformer for transforming the in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signals.

1. A method of generating in-quadrature signals, the method comprising: phase shifting a Doppler frequency shifted signal; phase shifting a local oscillator signal; mixing the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the phase-shifted local oscillator signal generating thereby a signal which includes the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a further phase-shifted local oscillator signal; and mixing the unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal generating thereby a signal which includes the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal and a further phase-shifted Doppler frequency shifted signal.

2. A method of determining the velocity of an object, the method comprising: receiving a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected of backscattered from the object; generating a local oscillator signal; based upon the received Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the local oscillator signal, generating an in-phase signal; based upon the received Doppler frequency-shifted signal and the local oscillator signal generating an in-quadrature signal; summing the in-phase signal and the in-quadrature signal; and transforming the summation of the in-phase signal and the in-quadrature signal.

3. A lidar comprising: an optical system for transmitting an output signal to an object and receiving thereby a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected or backscattered from the object; a signal mixing assembly receptive of the Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signal; and a signal transformer for transforming the in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signals.

4. A signal mixing system comprising: an array of signal couplers receptive of a Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal which includes the unphase shifted local oscillator signal and a phase shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and an in-quadrature signal which includes the phase shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a further phase shifted local oscillator signal; and a plurality of signal detectors receptive of the in-phase and in-quadrature signals.

5. A coherent optical system comprising: an optical system for transmitting an output signal to an object and receiving thereby a Doppler frequency-shifted signal reflected or backscattered from the object; a signal mixing assembly receptive of the Doppler frequency-shifted signal and a local oscillator signal generating thereby an in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signal; and a signal transformer for transforming the in-phase signal and an in-quadrature signals.

Description:

This disclosure relates to quadrature signal processing of local oscillator and Doppler frequency-shifted signals in a lidar or other coherent optical systems.

A primary obstacle of fiber lidar is assumed to be the birefringent depolarization of the local oscillator (LO) signal from the transmitted carrier after splitting from the lidar output path. The effect can destroy the heterodyne efficiency at the detector and hence lidar operation unless polarization preserving fiber is utilized in the system past the split point in homodyne systems. This effect is assumed worse in heterodyne systems utilizing different LO and transmitter sources. The only form of the optical fiber lidar “immune” from this effect utilizes a local oscillator signal taken from the Fresnel reflection at the end of the transmit fiber immediately preceeding the output telescope. However, this latter mode of operation is not required as conventionally assumed. Laboratory tests have shown that phonon modulation of the birefringence in the local oscillator path gives rise to AM modulation of the detected signals within the dynamic range required of the lidar to perform its basic task. This provides a statistically detectable signal.

Furthermore, in conventional lidar systems, a frequency offset between a local oscillator signal and a transmitted beam has been traditionally required. This has traditionally been achieved in homodyne operation via a frequency shifting device such as an expensive acousto-optic (A/O) modulator, or in heterodyne operation by maintaining a fixed offset between the frequencies of the two coherent sources. It is desirable to perform such heterodyning or homodyning without the use of such acousto-optic modulators.

The disclosed invention can be used in free-space lidar systems, fiber lidar systems, and other systems based upon coherent mixing to eliminate the costly A/O cell used for offset homodyne operation or the difficult to stabilize offset heterodyne source. These elements are replaced with inexpensive detectors and couplers with savings of several thousands of dollars. The use of the disclosed invention allows the effective use of non-polarized or polarization preserving fibers, depending on the coherent system design requirements. The disclosed invention can be utilized effectively in the presence of birefringent de-polarization.

Signal to noise ratio for the disclosed technique is within 3 dB of that engendered by the use of the typical A/O cell, but alignment and temperature sensitivities are considerably reduced. Further, the bandwidth requirements necessary in the processing electronics are cut in half relative to the A/O modulator or offset heterodyne systems. Lastly, the electronic support components required for the other system forms are eliminated with considerable savings in volume and electronic power. The use of multiple coherent wavelengths can be achieved with this disclosed invention

The disclosed technique enables considerably more compact systems to be fabricated and cost effectively extends the applicability of the typical fiber lidar into a wider range of applications that require fall signed Doppler spectrum (vector velocity). Typical applications that will see substantial benefit include vibration sensing, turbulence sensing and velocity lidars (e.g. police radar applications, relative motion sensing applications, optical air data systems, etc.) of any type (e.g. linear velocity, tangential velocity, spin sensing, etc.)

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of an optical fiber lidar using an acousto-optical modulator;

FIG. 2 is a schematic representation of a quadrature signal mixing assembly for bi-directional Doppler signal processing;

FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of a quadrature processed optical fiber lidar;

FIG. 4 is a schematic representation of a quadrature signal mixing assembly for bi-directional Doppler signal processing utilizing quarter wave retarders and signal amplifiers;

FIG. 5 is a schematic representation of a frequency offset local oscillator-signal in the quadrature signal mixing assembly of FIG. 2; and

FIG. 6 is a schematic block diagram of a lidar system.

Applications for coherent Doppler lidars include velocity sensing applications (platforms and objects), volumetric/fluidic flow sensing, vibration monitoring, range to target and other related standoff sensing applications. The lidar detects the Doppler frequency shift imposed on coherent light scattered from a moving target by mixing the scattered, frequency shifted light with a reference beam of light (local oscillator) which is not shifted in frequency on the detector. A difference frequency results from this mixing process which is proportional to the velocity of the scattering medium. It is the Doppler frequency shift imposed on the light scattered from the target that provides the mechanism used for velocity detection. The reference beam can be either derived from the transmit beam (homodyne operation) or derived from another stable coherent source (heterodyne operation). By measuring the Doppler shift from three (or more) spatially separated lidar beams a complete vector velocity can be computed along with statistical velocity information.

In general, fiber lidar systems utilize the same optical functions to perform the lidar mission, except the optical elements are created by guided-wave optics (i.e. optical fiber devices). The laser source is generally a combination of a suitable solid state, DFB laser diode and one or more cascaded optical fiber amplifiers of the appropriate wavelength, although fiber or free-space lasers could be used as the source elements. For the most part, the amplifier of choice is the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) operating at a wavelength of 1.54 mu.m. In one embodiment of an offset homodyne fiber lidar **100** shown in FIG. 1, the output **134** of the laser amplifier/source combination **102** is fed through a duplex element **110** to the end of a fiber **112** located at the focal point of an appropriate lens **114**. In FIG. 1, the local oscillator (LO) signal **346**, is split off by a tap coupler **106** prior to the duplex element **110** to be offset shifted in frequency by the A/O modulator **118**, **120**, **122**. The frequency shifted LO signal **148** is then recombined with the returning Doppler signal **146** in a combining coupler **128** as shown in FIG. 1. The main beam **140** is transmitted to the target (not shown), such as atmospheric scatterers, through the lens **114** which also couples the backscattered light **142** into the return fiber path **144** through the duplex element **110**. The two signals **146**, **148** then mix due to the superposition of the electric field vectors on the detector **128** to generate a signal **150** at the Doppler difference frequency according to the square of the electric field intensity. Electronic processing of the signal **150** is then used to produce a Doppler velocity spectrum **152**. The offset frequency must be greater than the highest Doppler velocity component. System electronic bandwidth must be twice this frequency to accept both positive and negative Doppler velocity.

If the optical fiber quadrature processing assembly **200** shown in FIG. 2 is substituted for the combiner **128** shown in FIG. 1 and the system diagram modified as shown in FIG. 3, the A/O modulator **118**, **120**, **122** may be omitted and the system electronic bandwidth cut in half due to the effective use of the phase information in the optical carrier **134**, **138**, **140**. The signals when processed according to the equations below result in a Fourier power spectrum centered around zero frequency instead of being centered around the offset frequency of the A/O modulator as in the case of FIG. 1. Such a network may also be used in coherent optical fiber systems (e.g., communications, sensors) operating over a wide range of wavelengths or may be used with free-space lidars with the appropriate optical coupling elements. In, FIG. 2, the fixed −90 degree phase shift of the couplers **202**, **204**, **206**, **208**, **210** is inherent in the coupled mode equations that describe the physics of the devices. These couplers **202**, **204**, **206**, **208**, **210** may then be used in mixing polarized or non-polarized optical sources at the optical detectors **214**, **216** to generate the quadrature Doppler components. Those in-quadrature signal components may then be processed as the analytic function for the Fourier transform

(sin(.+−.ω_{d})t−j cos(.+−.ω_{d})t)

to develop a signed velocity spectrum. While the equations below are used in RF spectrum analysis and are standard in communications textbooks for illustrating Fourier transform theory, heretofore it has not been connected to optical lidar signal processing using the phase characteristics of the coupled-mode equation.

Signals in a single mode, directional optical fiber coupler (fused, integrated optics, etc.) have a −90° phase shift in a transferred evanescent wave arm relative to the “straight through” fiber path due to the requirements of the wave equations for coupled waveguide solutions. This fact can be used as to develop in-quadrature signals for the spectrum analysis process that resolves the Doppler frequency and directional ambiguity in a Doppler based LIDAR (fiber or free-space based) used for velocity measurements. A shift in frequency is imposed on the transmitted light beam of a LIDAR (lidar) by the velocity of any object from which the light is reflected (i.e. the Doppler effect). However, a velocity magnitude toward or away from the lidar beam will generate the same differential frequency in the standard heterodyne process. This “directional ambiguity” must be resolved from the sign change in the axial vector velocity (i.e. change of velocity direction along a given axis) by use of the absolute frequency of the optical wave, by use of an offset frequency or via phase information relative to the carrier. The absolute carrier frequency is too high to work with in the electronic domain and the use of an offset frequency via an expensive acousto-optic cell (or other frequency shifting device), though conventionally used, is not to be preferred. The disclosed technique therefore develops the required information from the phase domain of signals.

The Doppler frequency shift in a lidar is related to the velocity according to the equation: 1d=−4 V s (rad/sec) or (1a) f d=−2V s(Hz) (1b)

where V is the target velocity in meters per second and λ_{s} is the laser source wavelength in the medium.

The network or array of signal couplers **200** illustrated in FIG. 2 is one combination of couplers that may comprise the in-quadrature signal processing network. The phase shifts for the signals are as illustrated for the various signals based on progression through the network. For the current discussion, the amplitude or splitting ratios are all assumed to be ½ (−3 dB couplers for C_{1} through C_{4}) except for coupler C_{0} (⅓-⅔). These split ratios allow the relative amplitude factors at the detectors to be assigned to unity for ease of computation. The coupling ratios may be significantly changed without significant change in the phase of the coupled wave arms in order to decrease the loss to the signal channel. This means that the loss in signal to noise ratio from this technique relative to a conventional single phase optical fiber system is no more than the 3 dB associated with coupler C_{1}. This loss is somewhat offset in the later signal processing. Loss in the local oscillator channel can be overcome simply by using more local oscillator power internal to the lidar. These considerations allow the network to operate over a very large dynamic range. In FIG. 2, the electric field (E) amplitudes of the signals delivered by the coupler array **200** to the first optical detector **214** is:

E_{1}=−E_{s} cos [(ω_{c}.+−.ω_{d})*t*]+E_{lo} sin(ω_{lo})*t* (2)

where E_{s} and E_{lo} are the vector magnitudes of the signal and local oscillator field strengths respectively, ω_{c} is the radian frequency of the transmitted optical carrier beam and ω_{d} is the radian frequency of the Doppler shift imposed on the light by moving target. The sign of omega._{d} is dependent on the direction of the velocity vector and is positive if the target is moving toward the beam (or lidar) and negative if it is moving away from the beam (or lidar). In general, omega._{d} is a spectrum of frequencies with a bandwidth determined by the target velocity, surface figure, etc. Similarly, omega._{c} and omega._{lo} likewise have a finite bandwidth that is dependent on the laser source(s) being used in the lidar. For the purposes of the current development, omega._{d}, ω_{c}, and omega._{lo} may be assumed to be radian frequencies of zero bandwidth. The total signal content after processing is then simply the sum of the power spectral densities of each signal's bandwidth after mixing in the optical detectors. Likewise, at the second optical detector, **216**:

E_{2}=−E_{s} cos [(ω_{c}.+−ω_{d})*t*]+E_{lo} cos(ω_{lo})*t* (3)

The detected signal currents are proportional to the power in the field and therefore, proportional to the square of the total field vector on each detector **214**, **216**. This fact is what causes the frequencies on the detectors to mix or “heterodyne.” It is assumed that the polarizations of E_{s} and E_{lo} have been adjusted to achieve linear addition of the field vectors (essentially a heterodyne efficiency of unity). This is usually achieved by the use of polarization preserving waveguide structures, but birefringent structures associated with normal optical fiber guides will work well under most conditions where some compromise in signal to noise ratio may be offset with temporal averaging of the results. Returning to the signal current, under the given assumptions the intensity of the signals detected is, for example at the first detector **214**:

I_{s}.varies.│E_{1}│^{2} (4)

Therefore, working with detector **214**, the in-phase signal is:

I_{P}.varies.│E_{s}│^{2} cos ^{2}[(ω_{c}.+−.ω_{d})t]+│E_{lo}│.su− p.2 sin(ω_{lo})t)−2│E_{s}∥E_{lo}│c− os[(ω_{c}.+−.ω_{d})t] sin(ω_{lo})t (5)

The first two terms in proportionality (5) comprise the DC current term in the equation, which are removed by filters in the processing system **328** (FIG. 3) as only the AC terms carry the Doppler information required. Given that the proportionality is a simple liner algebraic constant, the proportionality can be assumed to be an equality for the present purposes and later scaled as appropriate to the absolute magnitudes if absolute signal strength is required. Therefore, using the appropriate trigonometric identity,

2l p=−2 E s E lo [12 sin(cd+lo)t−12 sin(cd−lo)*t]* (6)

In equation (6)ω_{d} is very small in comparison to ω_{c} or ω_{lo} and the average radian frequencies of these two terms are essentially equal as they are derived by splitting a single laser source (homodyne operation), i.e. ω_{lo}=ω.sub−.c. If these two terms are derived from separate sources (heterodyne operation), the theory of the calculations will not change, however the measured Doppler frequency will deviate from the assumed condition by an offset equal to the frequency difference between the carrier and local oscillator laser.frequencies (ω_{d}=ω_{d},true+ωsu− b.offset). This issue can be ignored in the current calculations as the offset can be later added to the result. Therefore, provided sufficient coherence length is available in the laser source(s) such that ω_{lo} (t)=ω_{c} (t), the sum frequencies are absorbed by the detector material as loss, leaving I_{P}=+E_{sE}_{lo} sin(.+−.ω_{d})t (7)

Similarly, the signal current in detector **216**, the in-quadrature signal, may be calculated as: 3IQ−2E s E lo cos [(cd)t] cos(lo)t=−E s E lo cos (d)t(8)

It can be seen from equations (7) and (8) that the two Doppler, photo signal currents are separated by 90 degrees in phase and are therefore in-quadrature. To process the Doppler velocity then the signals are summed and the complex Fourier Transform is taken as follows: 4 F( )=E s E lo−∞+∞ [sin(d)t−j cos (d)t]exp{−jt}t (9)

Using Euler's identity: exp{.+−.jX}=sin(x).+−.j cos(x), then: 5 F ( )=lim a/2->∞ E s E lo−a 2+a/2exp{−j(d)t}exp{−jt}=lim a/2->∞E s E lo−a/2+a/2exp{−j(d)t}t=lim a/2->infin. E s E lo−j(d)t exp{−j(d)t}−a/2a/2-lim a/2->infin. Es E lo-j (d) a/2exp{−j(d)t}—a 2 a/2 (10)=lim a/2->∞E s E lo−j(d)a/2 j2 sin [(d)]a/2(11)

Mathematically, equation (11) then describes a frequency magnitude spectrum that is a zero bandwidth delta function with magnitude proportional to the product of E_{sE}_{lo} and a power spectral density proportional to │E_{sE}_{lo}│^{2} at a radian frequency of ω=+ω_{d} or−ω_{d} according to the vector direction of the target moving toward or away from the lidar respectively. The final equation is then:

F(ω)−2πE_{sE}_{lo}δ(ω.+−.ω_{d}) (12)

As was previously noted, if a finite bandwidth is associated with the laser source, local oscillator and/or target motion, the delta function of equation (12) is repeated over a power spectral density function whose width is equal to the sum of source bandwidth, local oscillator bandwidth and any additional bandwidth resulting from the target modulation effects. The center frequency of the distribution however, is still ω_{d} and its sign is either positive or negative in accordance with the direction of the Doppler shift. Thus analysis of the Fourier spectrum computed from the quadrature signals and equation (11) will yield both the magnitude spectrum of the Doppler signals (which may be further processed for velocity magnitude according to the equations 1a or 1b) and the sign of the velocity vector (inherent in the positive or negative sign of the frequency in the Fourier plane).

Referring to FIG. 6, a schematic block diagram of a lidar system is shown generally at **600**. In FIG. 6, an optical system **602** directs an output signal **340** to an object **604** from which the output signal **340** is reflected or backscattered as a Doppler frequency-shifted signal **342**. The optical system **602** accepts the Doppler frequency-shifted signal **342** and provides as output a local oscillator signal **332** and the Doppler frequency-shifted signal **346**. A quadrature signal mixing assembly **200** accepts as input the Doppler frequency-shifted signal **346** and the local oscillator signal **332** and provides as output an in-phase and an in-quadrature signal **212**, **218** for signal processing at **328** from which the velocity of the object may be determined.

Referring to FIG. 3, one embodiment of the lidar system of FIG. 6 is generally shown at **300**. In FIG. 3, a radiation source, such as a laser **302**, generates an output signal **334** at a prescribed wavelength, lambda., such as 1535 nm. This wavelength is in the primary fiber optic communications band but is not limited to that wavelength. The laser source **302** can be any combination of laser source and amplification such that a lidar quality source is achieved suitable for fiber optic utilization. The output signal **334** is introduced into a waveguide **304**, **308**, **312** such as an optical fiber. The waveguide includes a coupler **306** which divides the output signal **334** into a local oscillator signal **332** and a partial component **336** of the output signal **334**. The partial component **336** is provided to a circulator or duplexer **310** along waveguide section **308**. The circulator or duplexer **310** provides the partial component **336** of the output signal **334** to waveguide section **312** from which it is launched, via telescope **314**, to the object (not shown) as a transmitted lidar beam **340**. The transmitted beam **340** encounters the object and is reflected or backscattered therefrom as a Doppler frequency-shifted signal **342**. The Doppler frequency-shifted signal **342** retraces its path and is collected by the telescope **314** and introduced into waveguide section **312**. The circulator or duplexer **310** directs the Doppler frequency-shifted signal **342**, along with the local oscillator signal **332**, to a quadrature signal mixing assembly **200**. The quadrature signal mixing assembly **200** provides as output an in-phase and an in-quadrature signal **212**, **218** for signal processing at **328** from which the velocity of the object may be determined.

Referring to FIG. 2 a quadrature signal mixing assembly is shown generally at **200**. The quadrature signal mixing assembly **200** comprises an array or network of single mode directional couplers **202**, **204**, **206**, **208**, **210** interconnected by various waveguides generally designated by the reference numeral **250**. A first signal coupler. **202** is receptive of the local oscillator signal **324** of FIG. 3 at waveguide **326**. The first signal coupler **202** provides as output two signals **226**, **228**. The first output signal **226** of the first signal coupler **202** is an unphase-shifted local oscillator signal. The second output signal **228** of the first signal coupler **202** is the local oscillator signal phase-shifted by −90 degrees. The ratio of the amplitudes of the first and second output signals **226**, **228** of the first signal coupler **202** is 2 to 1. The local oscillator signal phase-shifted by −90 degrees **228** is provided as input to a second signal coupler **208**, which in turn provides as output one signal **232**. This output signal **232** is the local oscillator signal again phase-shifted by −90 degrees resulting in an output signal which is the local oscillator signal phase-shifted by a total of −180 degrees and reduced in amplitude to equal signal **226**.

In FIG. 2, a third signal coupler **204** is receptive of the Doppler frequency-shifted signal **346** of FIG. 3 at waveguide **324**. The third signal coupler **204** provides as output two signals **224**, **230**. The first output signal **224** of the third signal coupler **204** is an unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal. The second output signal **230** of the third signal coupler **204** is the Doppler frequency-shifted signal phase-shifted by −90 degrees. A fourth signal coupler **210** is receptive of the −180 phase-shifted local oscillator signal **232** and the −90 degree phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal **230**. The −180 phase-shifted local oscillator signal **232** and the −90 degree phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal are mixed in the fourth signal coupler **210** and the twice phase-shifted local oscillator signal is again phase-shifted by −90 degrees. The fourth signal coupler **210** provides as output an in-quadrature signal **218** which includes the phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal **230** and the further phase-shifted local oscillator signal **232**.

A fifth signal coupler **206** is receptive of the unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal **224** and the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal **226**. The unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal **224** and the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal **226** are mixed in the fifth signal coupler **206** and the unphase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal **224** is phase-shifted by −90 degrees. The fifth signal coupler **206** provides as output an in-phase signal **212** which includes the unphase-shifted local oscillator signal **226** and the −90 degree phase-shifted Doppler frequency-shifted signal.

The in-phase signal **212** and the in-quadrature signal **218** are provided as input to optical detectors **214**, **216** which provide as output electrical signals **220**, **222** indicative of the intensities, I_{P} and I_{Q}, of the in-phase and in-quadrature signals **220**, **222**. Fourier transforming the complex sum of the in-phase and in-quadrature signals yields a frequency spectrum centered around zero with the sign of the power spectral density components representing the sign of the vector velocity in the lidar beam **140** axis. The processing bandwidth is effectively one half of that which is required using a conventional A/O cell.

This method and apparatus can be achieved in the electronic domain under conditions in which tracking the Doppler frequency through zero velocity (zero frequency) is not necessary, i.e. a velocity scenario in which the Doppler frequency is unipolar and sufficiently displaced from zero at all times. However, the dynamic range and simplicity of the optical system disclosed is superior under all conditions and is therefore to be preferred under most circumstances supported by the photonics of the lidar itself. It should also be noted that this technique can be implemented in free-space optics with optical analogs (beam splitters and waveplates) to the fused waveguide couplers originally intended and to a limited degree in multi-mode optical waveguides. In this regard, it has not been obvious to the user community that the phase shift of the waveguide coupler may be used in manner disclosed.

In the case of polarized fiber systems, coupler **208** in FIG. 2 can be replaced with a ¼ wave retarder **208** a as seen in FIG. 4. Also, as seen in FIG. 5, the local oscillator signal **326** in FIG. 2 can be offset with either an A/O modulator **502**, **504**, **506** or a separate oscillator source to shift the frequency spectrum to any arbitrary frequency for use with other forms of processing (such as SAW spectrum analyzers), if sufficient benefit would accrue to such a return to the offset components. Free-space component analogs exist for utilization of the same technique in free-space lidars, but the alignment difficulty engendered in using such a scheme would have to be offset by integrated optical or precision alignment techniques.

Also shown in FIG. 4, another degree of freedom available to this system allows the use of an optical fiber amplifier **252** in the output legs of couplers **206** and **210** or the input leg of coupler **204** to restore signal to noise ratio lost due to the attenuation of the couplers. Such amplifiers can be back pumped to achieve isolation of the pump bands from the signal bands. Alternately, the individual couplers may be potentially combined with wavelength division multiplexers to both pump and split in a single efficient component.

Thus, based upon the foregoing description, a quadrature processed lidar system is disclosed with application general coherent optical systems. While preferred embodiments have been shown, and described, various modifications and substitutions may be made thereto without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is to be understood that the present invention has been described by way of illustration only, and such illustrations and embodiments as have been disclosed herein are not to be construed as limiting the claims.